Friday, September 20, 2019
Exploring whether are Criminals Born or Made A criminal can be defined as a person who has committed a crime. It does not matter whether one has committed a crime once or numerous times. Offences that may make one qualify to be called a criminal may include, robbery with violence, murder and so on. One may wonder why is it that some people have the habit of continually committing such crimes while others dont? Is it a matter of inheriting some genes from the family or is it ones on desire to do so? These questions and many more are some reasons that have brought about a fiery argument from the subject of criminology in the expedition to find the source of criminal behaviour in our society today and also ways of dealing with such kind of behaviour in our society. This essay will bring out factors that may lead to answering some of these questions looking at both approaches whether one is born a criminal or is forced to become a criminal because of some other factors like environment. Nevertheless, the essay will take a position and argue that these criminals are made and that no one is born a criminal. This is a behaviour some people obtain due to either by their own choice or factors from their environment. Psychologists have come up with many assumptions and intentions as to why individuals commit crimes. The two main clarifications lie in genetic and environmental factors, which conveys to the nature and nurture debate. Some argue that criminals are born, these are philosophers and scientists who believe that the genetics play a role in a persons behaviour and thus criminals are as a result of the same; these are twin and adoption studies. On the other hand there are also studies that have been conducted to prove that criminals are made by society, these are scientist and philosophers who consider that it is the environment, such as a persons interaction with the society that models behaviour of the individual. Some psychologists and medical researchers have come to the theory that criminal behaviour is hereditary just as other medical conditions, such as heart disease and high cholesterol. This gives a conclusion that criminals have a tendency to commit crime and are indeed born (Wasserman D (2004). On the other hand, an individual who is not genetically inclined to criminal behaviour can be forced by the environment to get involved in to the same. Peer pressure is one of best illustration in such cases. Most of the criminals today are from big cities where living conditions are somehow hostile. One of the major factors that drive such individuals to criminal behaviour is poverty, which in this case lies in the nature side of the debate. That is to say, poverty, which is an environmental factor, also plays a huge role in producing criminal behaviour (Baatz, Darrow, 2009).. A study on identical twins in a University in Florida carried out in 2007 shows that the relationship of criminal behaviour of identical and fraternal twins were evaluated with each other in these studies; it was concluded that rates of participation in criminal acts to be more alike for pairs of identical twins compared to fraternal. However, critics dispute that reasons other than that of hereditary could be the cause for the result. Contrasting to other family members identical twins normally spend more time collectively, frequently having the similar instructors and associates, thus sharing allot of experiences. Identical twins are more often than not closely emotionally involved to each other because of the aforesaid factors, making them similar in approach and behaviour including, involvement in criminal activity. A question may be raised in relation to genetic factors leading to criminal behaviour, that why should one be penalized if it is genetically inherited? The answer to such a question rely in part on whether one believes that factors reducing but not getting rid of ones ability for willpower ought to reduce moral accountability for ones behaviour. Moral philosophers differ on this subject, with some requiring an impairment of normal deliberative processes or at least a denial of the desires that the person finds so hard to manage before they would accept an argument for improvement. However, poverty is not the only environmental factor that may lead an individual to crime. One may notice that though poverty is a factor in criminal behavior, not all people leaving in poverty indulge in crime (Raine, 1993). This is to say that criminal behavior can be controlled by the environmental factors like what lessons one is taught. Still, not all criminals come from modest background or from big cities, some also come from well-off families living in outer edge. These are mostly peer influence, naturally human beings are sensible, and they freely make decisions even though they understand the outcome of their own choices. Thus criminals are not born but made. The old proverb says that wicked group damage decent principles. Relating with criminals can make an individual to end up as a criminal. This may be the major motive why children from well-off families obtain criminal behaviour. Petty crimes committed by children may appear to be a tale to friends who may also be involved the same for pleasurable. Over duration of time, this behaviour may prove to become a permanent thing. Peer pressure is mainly clear in the slums where houses close to one another. Among other factors, this explains why crime rate is on the higher on average in poor vicinity. According to study, families in inner cities are facing many challenges. There is extremely huge number of single parent families where mostly the father is missing. A family where father is missing lacks that unity that a father brings in a family. Boys need a father figure in the family to help them grow and learn how to control their manhood. In Addition to this domestic hostility that is ra mpant in families and the circumstances that become apparent is an rising number of youth brought up in such homes. Another good example is the high rate of criminal activity associated with African Americans as compared to the whites. This can only be explained by the peer influence acquired from one another in these neighbourhoods. A family mingles an individual to the exterior world. It introduces the prospects of society on each individual. When the individual is brought up in a family set upwhere there is respect for authority and personal possessions, there is affection, and hard work is appreciated; this individual assumes the similar principles. A father figure in the family symbolizes authority. Children brought up in single parented families where they were battered may utter their antagonism on the public and become criminals (Ferri, 2008). The importance of rearing children in normal families cannot be contradicted. Thus most single parented families play a major role to crime in that they do not instil the best of the children they bring up by bringing out the mandatory morals. This evidently illustrates why a family is the heart of every society, and everything that takes place in it will eventually resound transversely in the whole society (Miller, Gaines, 2008). The same relates to schools. A sch ool not only implant helpful morals, but also authorize children to lead straightforward lives. Failure to this, its graduates may be prone to crime. From the above-mentioned situations, the environment also plays are the crucial task in initialling criminals. Therefore, criminals are made. This is to say, criminals realize this behaviour from their neighbourhood or they are forced by living conditions. Similarly psychologists frequently say things like Families with inadequate communication and poor family attachment have been shown to have a connection with a childs development of hostile/criminal behavior.Ã Or children are at a bigger risk of involving in crimes, if they were abandoned or neglected (Caspi A. (2002). There is sharp turn of events in out societal principles concerning earning a living currently. We are instructed that in order to be wealthy, you dont need to work hard, but rather work smart.. The meaning of the term work smart is vague. In the real sense, an individual a little less hard but earning significantly extra than generally individuals would be termed to be working smart. Reasonably speaking, there are careers where people receive plenty of money for working fewer hours; compared to r the majority plenty of cash is a result of tolerance and hard work. Since chances for working smart are scarce or rather imaginary, some people end up devious and other deceitful activities that border on crime to get money (Baatz, Darrow, 2009). In societies where people like this obtain and hold on to their corrupted wealth, who would be willing to stick to usual ways of earning a living. Everyone will be on the look for a shortcut to develop living standards. This habitually means turni ng to corruption. When such circumstances exist in any society it will eventually crumple, particularly if the leaders are implicated. To conclude therefore, it can be argued that, though studies have found that both genes and environment play a role in the criminality of the individual, the environment plays a key role in stemming or spreading such behaviors. Criminals are therefore made and not necessarily born
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Characters: Jessica Berman-(Main Character) Recently started smoking pot and kind of paranoid. Smart girl, 17 year old senior in high school, as far as her parents can tell she is a good girl, she has never gotten into trouble in her entire life. Marissa Kramer- an aged veteran in the pot scene. She is outgoing, wild and carefree. 20 years old, a sophomore in college and her parents are well aware, but not approving of all of her bad habits. Mary Flood- Police officer, Obviously the one in charge, training her new partner what to do. Brian Luckman- The actual arresting officer. New to the job, not quite confident in himself; on the quieter side. Andrew Berman-JessicaÃ¢â¬â¢s father. Pretty strict but does not often yell Jonathan Kramer- MarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, a bit mean spirited, likes to joke a lot, but has a bad temper. Scene 1: Characters-Jessica, Marissa and Mary Setting- Glencoe Police Station, The two girls have been arrested for possession of marijuana Mary: Ok girls.... (All three girls giggle) Mary: IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to take care of a few things, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be right back. Mary gathers the papers in her hands and leaves the room Marissa: She is so nice! Jessica: I know, I wonder if maybe sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll just let me stay here for a night Marissa: IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure it could be arranged, do you mind if I ask why though? Jessica: I just am thinking it would have to be the safest place for me once my parents find out.. It canÃ¢â¬â¢t be so bad, free food, a place to sleep. The clothing isnÃ¢â¬â¢t that great, but IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure eventually I would adjust. Marissa: Yeah, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a good plan, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure a little north shore girl like you could last 10 minutes in prison. Jessica: Hey, I could too. How hard could it really be? Marissa: HavenÃ¢â¬â¢t you ever seen Oz? Jessica rolls her eyes at Marissa Marissa: What! I was kidding! Jessica: This is really neither the time nor the place. Marissa: Sorry... (mumbles) just trying to ease the tension Mary walks back into the room with a phone in her hand Mary: Here Jessica, you want to try your parents again? Mary hands Jessica the phone Jessica: Thanks. Everyone pauses a second as we wait for JessicaÃ¢â¬â¢s parents to answer the phone, however, she cannot get a hold of them Jessica: No oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home Mary: Do they have a cell phone you could try them on? Jessica: Yeah, one sec. Everyone pauses again as Jessica once again tried to contact her parents.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
"Therefore if a prince wants to maintain his rule he must learn how not to be virtuous, and to make use of this or not according to his need." 1 Thus wrote NiccolÃ ² Machiavelli almost five hundred years ago in his handbook to the Prince Lorenzo DeÃ¢â¬â¢ Medici. Whether Machiavelli wrote these words in a desperate attempt to win a position as advisor or whether he hoped in truth to trap the prince with false advice we can only guess from afar. Yet his book offers both advice and food for thought for today. In the last chapter of the book he offered a dream for a new Italian Moses, someone to free Italy from foreign control. Whether this was MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s passionate dream or simply bait for the prince, we are now embarking on what may well be the opposite: the selling out of our own country to foreigners in the dream of one unified North America. It is exactly what Prime Minister John A. Macdonald called "veiled treason" in 1891. 2 If you, Mr Mulroney, are to continue in thi s decision MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s principals of heartlessness and purpose may be invaluable. Machiavelli warns when a principality invites a new ruler in, expecting to improve their situation they will likely be disappointed and then rebel against the ruler. In MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s time this would have meant a full and bloody rebellion, but think how much easier it is now! The people have only to vote at the election, and do not need to remind you that in the most recent election you had only 43% of the vote. The majority of the people are against you, and this is dangerous. What is it you promise the people, and can you provide? You need not fear giving your word lightly, and I doubt anyone today truly expects you to keep all your promises. Yet still there must be something for you to offer in the end. "The common people are always impressed by appearances and results. In this way there are only common people, and there is no room for the few when the many are supported by the state." (101) The immediate problem with NAFTA, as I see it, is a shift in the tax burden from the manufacturers to the people. Retired judge Marjorie Montgomery Bowker has suggested that by 1998, when NAFTA will be fully implemented our lost revenues will be 24 billion.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Virtually every crop we eat have undergone hundreds of years of genetic modification by farmers and scientist in search of desirable traits. Selective breeding and hybrid strains have contributed immeasurably to farm productivity during this time. Over the past 30 years however, genetic engineering has been revolutionized. While before, a farmer wanting to develop a frost resistant tomato would be able to breed towards one only if the necessary genes were available somewhere in tomatoes or a near relative to tomatoes, modern biological engineering techniques overcome such restrictions. Genetic traits from outside a speciesÃ¢â¬â¢ gene pool, in the tomatoÃ¢â¬â¢s case from an arctic fish, can be spliced into the organism to create an entirely different species, a transgenic organism with the typical traits of a tomato and frost resistance from a fish. The most widely used method of gene splicing, recombinant DNA, uses biochemical Ã¢â¬Å"scissorsÃ¢â¬ called restriction enzymes to cut the strings of DNA, selecting required genes. These are then Ã¢â¬Å"ferriedÃ¢â¬ by a virus or a bacterium that infects the host, smuggling the gene into the plantÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA. In this way scientists have been able to create slow ripening and seedless fruit, crops that grow in unfavourable conditions and are resistant to disease or herbicides and milk from cows given a genetically engineered growth hormone. The benefits of gene technology in terms of food production are enormous. The most common genetically engineered crops contain modifications that make the plants resistant to certain diseases and herbicides, or allow them to produce their own pesticides, thereby eliminating or reducing the need to spray. So-called Ã¢â¬Å"Bt corn,Ã¢â¬ for example, contains a gene resistant to the harmful mycotoxin fungus and herbicide producers, Monsanto have created a strain of soybeans genetically modified to be unaffected by their product Roundup. The soybean farmer therefore can avoid targeting specific weeds and require just one application of a general weed-killer, reducing costs and agricultural waste run-off. Genetically modified crops are also being adapted to grow in salty, dry or frosty environments, contain edible vaccines, have a longer shelf life and be more nutritious. A group of Swiss and German scientists recently developed a strain of GM rice know as ? golden riceÃ¢â¬â¢ due to its altered colour. Containing genes that produce a unusually high amount of beta-carotene (vitamin A), this rice could be a solution to the thousands of poor children in Asia who eat little but rice and go blind or die from lack of vitamin A Public reaction to the use of recombinant DNA in genetic engineering however has been mixed. Sliding US export commodities such as genetically modified soybeans and corn have highlighted hardened public opinion and widespread resistance to biotech crops, especially in the European Union. Concerns about GM foods fall into three categories: economics, environmental hazards and human health risks. The latter two have been the subject of hot debate, both in Australia and overseas. Environmental damage from GM crops can be caused through various channels. One of the main concerns has been the possibility of gene transfer to a non-target species, that is crops engineered for herbicide tolerance and weeds cross-breeding, resulting in the transfer of the herbicide resistance to create ? superweedsÃ¢â¬â¢. In addition, environmentalists fear that transgenic plants may proliferate rapidly, pollinating natural plants in their surroundings eliminating existing species. Further environmental suspicions include those of unintended harm to other organisms (especially non-target insects) and of the reduced effectiveness of pesticides once insects become tolerant to a cropÃ¢â¬â¢s natural pesticide. Questions have also been raised on the human impact of genetically modified organisms. Critics of recombinant DNA fear that the pathogenic, or disease-producing organisms used in some recombinant DNA experiments might develop extremely infectious forms that could cause worldwide epidemics. Likewise, the unknown effect of foreign genes introduced into GM food crops in terms of human health also presents a controversial issue. Furthermore, there is a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant may create a new allergen or cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals. A proposal to incorporate a gene from Brazil nuts into soybeans in order to increase their nutritional value was abandoned when it was found that the genetically engineered soybeans caused an allergic reaction in people sensitive to Brazil nuts. For these reasons, extensive testing and labelling of GM foods may be required to avoid the possibility of harm to consumers with food allergies. Biotechnology has started to revolutionise food production, with fantastic results. With the world population of 6 billion expected to double in the next 50 years and an adequate food supply becoming a major challenge it will no doubt continue to do so in the future.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Despite the fact that HIV/AIDS has become a serious public wellness job in Manipur for the last decennaries impacting people of all societal groups, the cognition and understanding degree of the general population is frequently marred by misconceptions taking to the marginalisation of HIV/AIDs and PLHAs. This article is based on prolong fieldwork carried out in two territories of Manipur viz ; Imphal and Chandel in the twelvemonth 2008 with the purpose to measure cognition and understanding degree of the general population sing HIV/AIDS, their attitude towards PLHAs ; and to unearth the myth, belief and patterns related to HIV/AIDS which might exposed them to HIV infection. A sum of 200 respondents i.e. 100 respondents from each territory dwelling of equal figure of male and female from the general population were interviewed for the intent. Knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and pattern towards HIV/AIDS in Manipur, India: a cross sectional survey. HIV/AIDS has spread like wildfire since its first sensing in 1981and has claimed 1000000s of lives across the universe. Harmonizing to the UNAID study, there were 33 million people populating with HIV, 2.7 million people were freshly infected with HIV and 2.0 million people died of AIDS in the twelvemonth 2007 alone ( UNAID study, 2007 ) . The spread of HIV/AIDS continues to intensify with every passing twelvemonth despite attempts to control it by the states across the continents. AIDS continues to be one of the slayer diseases of the twenty-first century without any remedy so far. It knows no societal, gender, caste and geographical boundary thereby impacting people from all walks of life: immature and old, rich and hapless, male and female, and cutting across different states of the universe. In India, HIV/AIDS has become one of the most ambitious public wellness jobs. The first HIV/AIDS instance in India was detected in 1986 at CMC, Vellore, from blood samples taken from commercial sex workers in Madras. Since so, it has spread heterogeneously and steadily to all the other States and Union districts. India is now, the 3rd largest HIV/AIDS affected state in the universe and remains the largest in Asia ( NACO, 2007 ) . The entire figure of people populating with HIV/AIDS ( PLHAs ) in India in 2007 was estimated to be 2.31 million ( 1.8-2.9 million ) . Out of this, 39 % of PLHAs are estimated to be females ( Technical brief, NACO, 2007 ) . Heterosexual is still the prevailing manner of HIV transmittal in India. However, the transmittal form of HIV in India is uneven with southern provinces describing more of heterosexual transmittal than the northern provinces. In the north eastern provinces, it is a combination of both shooting drug users and unprotected sex. Six provinces in India reported high HIV prevalence of more than 1 % among female parents go toing ante-natal clinic. Manipur is one such six provinces besides Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Nagaland. With barely 0.2 % of the state Ã¢â¬Ës entire population, yet lending about 8 % of India Ã¢â¬Ës entire HIV positive instances, AIDS has emerged as a new and serious public wellness exigency in Manipur. Though the major transmittal path in Manipur still remains through shooting drug users ( IDUs Ã¢â¬Ë ) , sexual transmittal is non far behind. A recent one-year lookout surveillance study ( NACO, 2006 ) revealed that HIV prevalence among IDUs has well come down over the old ages but Manipur still has HIV prevalence of IDUs Ã¢â¬Ë above 10 % . The rapid addition in HIV transmittal through insecure sex in the province in recent times is extremely refering. The prevalence of HIV among female sex workers ( FSW ) in Manipur is 13.07 % , following merely to Maharashtra ( 17.9 % ) and among work forces holding sex with work forces ( MSM ) is 16.4 % . ( HIV sentinel surveillance/technical brief, NACO ) . Vertical transmittal of HIV infection from hubby to get married monogamous married woman in Manipur is deriving impulse over the last few old ages with a study of more than 1 % prevalence of HIV among female parents go toing prenatal clinic. HIV/AIDS is progressively acute every bed of societal strata making even to the remotest country in Manipur. Negi K.S et.al ( 2006 ) in their survey observed that most of the persons in community do non hold correct and complete information about HIV/AIDS and its bar. The latest study of Manipur State AIDS Control Society ( MSACS ) revealed that Manipur has 40,000 HIV positive reported instances among the general population. HIV/AIDS has therefore, go a serious public wellness job in Manipur, impacting people from all societal strata. Therefore, maintaining the widespread job of HIV in head, the present survey has been planned to measure the cognition and apprehension of the general population sing HIV/AIDS, their attitude towards PLHAs Ã¢â¬ ; and to unearth the myth, belief and patterns related to HIV/AIDS which might expose them to HIV infection.Material and methods:This was a cross-section and experimental survey carried out in two territories of Manipur viz Chandel and Imphal from June 2008 till mid-November 2008. A sum of 200 respondents consisting of 100 respondents each from two sub-divisions i. vitamin E Lamphelpat in Imphal West and Chandel in Chandel territories, were contacted in their place and interviewed. The respondents who were at least 18 old ages of age and above were indiscriminately selected and interviewed after taking their informed consent. Equal Numberss of male and female respondents from both the territories were selected for the intent. A pre-tested questionnaire consisting of points on socio-demographic background, cognition, attitude, behaviour and pattern of HIV/AIDS was used for roll uping informations from each of the respondents. The interview though, based on the questionnaire was a combination of closed and open-ended, and the interview was carried out in free flowing mode where respondents revealed beyond what is being asked. This was supplemented by participant observation. Imphal is the capital metropolis of Manipur and lies at the bosom of the province. It is a commercial and official hub of the province. There are different communities populating in Imphal, the majority of which is constituted by the Meitei community followed by Muslims, different tribal groups, and non-Manipuri migrators. Imphal territory being the capital metropolis holds an border over other territories and has the best wellness attention installations available in the province. Besides that, it is besides place to many apex authorities and non-government offices including assorted NGOs Ã¢â¬Ë working for the public assistance of HIV/AIDS in the province. It besides has an border over other territories in footings of substructure, conveyance and communicating, educational establishments, etc. Imphal is divided into two districts-east and west. The country of the survey was in located in Lamphelpat sub-division of Imphal-west territory. This sub-division is the most thickly popula ted country ( 2001 nose count ) in Imphal West. Majority of the people in Lamphelpat follow Hinduism, Muslim, Meitei Sanamahi and Christianity. Another country of the survey is Chandel territory, situated on the southern portion of Manipur 64km off from Imphal metropolis. It is inhabited by scheduled folks preponderantly belonging to the Naga cultural group followed by folks belonging to Kuki/Zou cultural groups. There is besides a minor population of non-tribal communities belonging to Meitei, Muslim and non-Manipuri migrators. The field survey was carried out in the territory headquarter of Chandel sub-division where the survey population comprises of different Naga folk. Christianity is the dominant faith practiced among the tribal population of Chandel sub-division.Datas analysis:Data was entered in SPSS-Pc version 11.5/15 ( Check ) . Data was expressed in per centums and comparings between the groups were done utilizing Chi-square trial. Unpaired't Ã¢â¬Ë trial was performed for happening out differences between groups for quantitative variables. Ã¢â¬Ëp Ã¢â¬Ë value less than 0.05 was considered important.Consequenc esDemographic profile of the survey population:A sum of 200 respondents from both Imphal and Chandel territories were interviewed utilizing the framed KABP questionnaires. There were 100 respondents from each of the territory consisting of 50 male and 50 female. The respondents in Chandel belonged to the tribal population of the Nagas while that of Imphal belonged to the Meiteis. The respondents belonging to different age groups were maximal for: 18-30 ( 45.5 % ) , 31-40 ( 29 % ) , 41-50 ( 16 % ) , 51-60 97 % ) and 61-above ( 2.5 % ) in falling order. In footings of matrimonial position, the respondents comprises largely of married work forces ( 54 % ) and adult female ( 61 % ) , followed by single work forces ( 44 % ) and adult females ( 34 % ) . The educational position of the respondents in Imphal countries largely studied till secondary ( 33 % ) or up to alumnuss ( 33 % ) while in Chandel, most of the respondents studied till secondary ( 30 ) . Gender wise, male respondents were found to be more educated than female. At least 39 % respondents in Chandel were either illiterate or have primary instruction as against 5 % respondents in Imphal. Overall, most respondents studied till secondary ( 31.5 ) followed by alumnuss ( 29 % ) . In footings of business, bulk of the respondents were unemployed ( 28 % ) . Majority of female respondents were housewife ( 21.5 % ) . Employment position of the respondents was seen to be more ( 17 % ) in Imphal than in Chandel ( 7 % ) . Most of the respondents in Imphal comprise of unemployed ( 32 % ) , followed by those employed ( 17 % ) while in Chandel, homemaker ( 29 % ) and pupils ( 26 % ) constitute the majority of the respondents. With regard to faith, 71 % respondents in Imphal follow Hinduism, 25 % Meitei Sanamahi, 3 % Christianity and 1 % other faith. As compared to this, all the respondents in Chandel follow Christianity.Findingss:Cognition: From the survey, it was found that except for one respondent from Chandel, all the other respondents in both the survey countries have heard of AIDS. On farther question about what AIDS disease was, bulk of them could non give correct reply. Merely 5 % respondents in Imphal and 6 % respondents in Chandel gave right reply to this. Male respondents ( 8 % ) were somewhat knowing about what AIDS disease was than female respondents ( 3 % ) . With regard to the inquiry on what is HIV? 17 % respondents in Imphal gave right reply as against 22 % right reply in Chandel. Gender wise, the figure of male respondents ( 32 % ) with right response was extremely important ( p & lt ; 0.000 ) than female respondents ( 7 % ) . 57 % respondents from Imphal and 47 % respondents in Chandel knew about the difference between HIV and AIDS. A important difference ( p & lt ; 0.001 ) was observed between the two genders as male respondents ( 65 % ) who gave right response was significantly higher than female respondents ( 39 % ) . Sing the etiology of HIV/AIDS, bulk of the respondents from both the countries i.e. 69.5 % were knowing about the causative agent for HIV. The staying figure of respondents had misconceptions. A important difference of P & lt ; .020 and ( P & lt ; .006 ) was observed in Imphal and Chandel severally in this facet. Sing the manner of HIV/AIDS transmittal, bulk of the respondents i.e. & gt ; 90 % from Imphal and Chandel had right cognition about it when it concerns agitating custodies, infected blood transfusion, sharing towels, unprotected sex, coughing/sneezing, and sharing septic acerate leaf. & gt ; 75 % had right cognition on mosquito bite, kissing/hugging, and infected female parent to child. A important difference of P & lt ; 0.022 was noted in Imphal with regard to sharing of towels while in Chandel, a important difference of P & lt ; 0.001, P & lt ; 0.005, P & lt ; 0.001 was observed with regard to mosquito bite, sharing of towels, and kissing/hugging severally. The response on the cognition of common symptoms of HIV/AIDS was met with 93 % and 87 % respondents mentioning weight loss and loss of complexion/appetite as the most common symptoms severally of PLHAs. Respondents besides considered fever/cough ( 79 % ) , diarrhoea ( 74.5 % ) , OI like T.B/cancer ( 74 % ) , roseola on the tegument ( 73 % ) and swelling in inguens ( 71 % ) in falling orders as other symptoms of PLHAs. On the beginnings of information on HIV/AIDS, bulk of the respondents i.e. & gt ; 90 % from Imphal country have mass media like Television ( local channel ) , wireless, newspaper ; street dramas, as their chief beginning. Another, 72-88 % reported NGOs Ã¢â¬Ë , and a negligible 18-4 % reported church as their chief beginnings of information. No important difference was observed in imphal. In contrast, Chandel reported high per centum i.e. aÃ¢â¬ °?84 % of respondents acquiring information from church, and NGOs. A important difference of response i.e P & lt ; 0.037, P & lt ; 0.002, P & lt ; 0.001 and p & lt ; 0.013 in the beginnings of information was noted in wireless, telecasting, newspaper and NGOs.Attitude:The survey found that bulk of the respondents from both the survey countries i.e. 53.3 % were strongly in favour of the attitudinal statements that HIV/AIDS is a penalty of God for bad behaviour. A important difference ( p & lt ; 0.012 ) was observed in Chandel as female respon dents ( 68 % ) were extremely in favour of the statement than their male opposite numbers ( 42 % ) . 83.5 % and 91.5 % respondents besides considered HIV/AIDS as a job chiefly associated with immoral behaviour and shooting drug users ( IDU ) severally. No important difference was observed in the above statements. Respondents ( 71.5 % ) besides opine that PLHA should non acquire married. A important difference P & lt ; 0.005 was observed in chandel with regard to this response. A humongous 94.5 % besides expressed their concern for compulsory HIV proving prior to marriage while 85 % respondents voiced the demand for separate wellness Centre for PLHAs. 46.5 % respondents said PLHAs should be isolated to forestall farther transmittal while 46 % respondents said they would non wish to mix with PLHAs. A important difference of P & lt ; 0.047 and 0.002 severally was noted in the above statements in chandel. 67.5 % respondents besides said they would experience ashamed if they were infected with HIV/AIDS and 39.5 % respondents agreed that PLHAs should non be operated for any surgical job. A important difference with regard to these statements was seen at P & lt ; 0.023 and p & lt ; 0.002 severally among male and female respondents of chandel. As respects to pre-marital sex, merely mere 16 % respondents had no issue while the bulks were non in favour of it. There was a important difference of P & lt ; 0.040 in the response among male and female respondents in chandel. 76.5 % respondents strongly believed that PLHAs are destined to decease Oklahoman or subsequently. No important difference was observed in both the two survey sites. However, when it comes to learning school kids about safer sex, whacking 96.5 % respondents agreed to it with no important difference seen in the response in both the two survey country. Sing corporate duty of the society to care for PLHAs, 84 % respondents were in favour of it. However, a important difference of P & lt ; 0.006 was noted merely in respondents of chandel. Behaviors and Practices: The general mean age for the oncoming of sex was 23.37AÃ ±5.73. However, it was noted that respondents in Chandel ( 20.21AÃ ±4.08 ) had earlier onset of sexual intercourse than those in Imphal ( 27.36AÃ ±4.99 ) . Out of 200 respondents, a sum of 113 respondents responded to this inquiry of age at first sexual brush. Education was found to be straight relative to the oncoming of sex. Less educated respondents had earlier onset of sex than those educated 1s. The mean for age at matrimony was 25.51AÃ ±5.64 and instruction was found to hold some influence on the age of matrimony every bit good. Less educated respondents marry earlier than those educated 1s. A important difference was observed in the age of matrimony among female respondents from Chandel as the induction of matrimony begins every bit early as the age of 14 ( 20.42AÃ ±41 ) . From the analysis, it was found that few or more respondents were found to hold hazardous behaviour susceptible to HIV infection. 7.5 % respondents admitted holding been exposed to blood transfusion for assorted medical jobs. 41 % said their organic structures have been injured by crisp objects such as blade/knife. The response to the latter statement was favourably high in chandel & gt ; 53 % . However, no important difference was observed. Negligible male respondents i.e. 3.5 % revealed to hold used opprobrious drugs such as intoxicant, diacetylmorphine, drugs, etc. No female was found utilizing opprobrious drugs. 62 % admitted being physically involved with their spouse i.e. either with partner of non-regular sexual spouse. Here, a important difference of P & lt ; 0.002 was observed in imphal with more male acknowledging to it. Another 10.5 % consisting largely of male respondents were found to be indulging in sex with non-regular spouse. A important difference of P & lt ; 0.018 in imphal and P & lt ; 0.001 in chandel was observed. With regard to utilize of rubber in sex either with regular ( partner ) or non-regular sexual spouses, 18.5 % respondents said they used it systematically. In chandel, a important difference of P & lt ; 0.004 was noted with male respondents utilizing rubber in sex. 17 % respondents of the married twosome used household planning of any signifier. 40.5 % respondents consisting largely of male respondents said they have attended awareness camps/programmes on HIV/AIDS. A important difference of P & lt ; 0.014 and p & lt ; 0.011 in imphal and chandel severally, was observed. It was besides noted that 34 % respondents had done HIV proving at least one time in their life. Another 39 % respondents showed their willingness to travel for HIV proving if necessary. More male respondents were seen to demo willingness to travel for HIV proving. A important difference was observed in both the survey countries i.e. P & lt ; 0.007 in chandel and P & lt ; 0.035 in chandel. Another 28 % respondents said they would delegate specific utensils if anyone in their household was infected with the virus. No important difference was seen here. 16 % respondents besides admit that people do insult/tease people with the virus. A important difference of P & lt ; 0.001 was observed as really less female respondents in chandel admit to PLHAs being teased/insulted. Another 50.5 % besides said spiritual places are usually denied to PLHAs which is considered baronial place. The response from female respondents was more and a really high important difference of P & lt ; 0.000 was observed between the two genders in chandel.Discussion:The present survey revealed that though all the respondents heard about AIDS, many of them did non cognize what AIDS precisely was. For most respondents, AIDS was normally synonymous with sexual promiscuousness, immoral behaviour and shooting drug users. This belief was chiefly propounded by the fact that most PLHAs Ã¢â¬ in the survey cou ntries were believed to be associated with at least one of the above characters. Similar findings were reported by Viser MJ et.al, 2006 ; Smith DJ. 2004. When it comes to HIV, really few respondents had right cognition about it despite the fact that AIDS has become a Ã¢â¬Ëdining table talk Ã¢â¬Ë . Out of the few respondents that have right cognition on HIV, male respondents were more. This may be due to the fact that the overall educational position of male respondents was somewhat higher than their female opposite numbers. The other ground could be because male members of the society are more outgoing, hence are more updated about their societal environment through media beginnings like newspaper and magazines. Majority of the respondents besides could non province the difference between HIV and AIDS. It was interesting to observe that some respondents had wholly different impression approximately HIV as a separate disease non related to AIDS at all. Many of them were still incognizant of the term HIV when used in isolation from AIDS. It was found that HIV and AIDS were frequently times used together without truly understanding the difference between the two. Respondents from Imphal were found to hold somewhat better cognition about HIV than respondents from Chandel. This could be due to the fact that unlike respondents from Imphal, respondents in Chandel had less or no entree to media such as newspapers, local channel, and street dramas, etc whereby HIV/AIDS instruction is given out at regular intervals. Sing the manner of HIV/AIDS transmittal, bulk of the respondents had right cognition about it particularly refering to the four primary manner of transmittal i.e. through insecure sexual contact, blood transfusion, sharing septic syringe and female parent to child transmittal. However, few respondents had misconceptions when it comes to transmission through mosquito bite, agitating custodies, sharing towel, coughing or sneeze, and kissing/hugging. These misconceptions is chiefly to make with the false beliefs that HIV/AIDS is transmitted through any blood merchandise and organic structure fluids ( workout suits ) and as such anything that makes direct contact with the blood as in the instance of mosquito or organic structure fluid is considered hazardous. Therefore, there is pressing necessity to sensitise decently the general population about the right manner of HIV/AIDS transmittal. Similar findings in the line of deficiency of proper sensitization/education on HIV/AIDS taking to m isconceptions, was besides reported by Hartwig K.A et.al 2006. As was observed in the analysis, many of the respondents from chandel particularly female respondents tend to trust on information obtained from local chitchats, which are frequently times marred by hyperboles and misconceptions responsible for stigmatisation and favoritism of PLHAs and the disease HIV/AIDS. The misconceptions refering to HIV/AIDS was closely related to the ways through which information about the disease is obtained. Respondents from Imphal had mass media like local channel ( T.V ) , and newspaper, etc as their chief beginning of information whereby HIV/AIDS instruction is given out by dependable beginnings whereas, in Chandel, media function was negligible. This could be explained on the footing of unavailability to local channel ( T.V ) and newspaper. In Chandel where cent per centum of the respondents are Christians, church act as one of the major beginnings for distributing information/knowledge on HIV/AIDS. It was found during participant observation that non all church leaders were decently trained nor good equipped with information on HIV/AIDS yet many of the church leaders did non waver to reprobate HIV/AIDS as a shameful, ugly and fatal disease fated to bechance upon promiscuous and immoral individual in the society. So, church members were encouraged to patter n abstention from sex boulder clay matrimony and be in sync with the scriptural moral rule so as to avoid HIV/AIDS disease. This could be one of the grounds why stigmatisation of PLHAs was more terrible in Chandel than in imphal. It is besides interesting to observe that female members of the society in both the survey country were found to be Ã¢â¬Ësocial witting Ã¢â¬Ë i.e. what society thinks and were more prone to take part in and trust on local chitchats which is largely influenced by Ã¢â¬Ësocio-cultural feelings Ã¢â¬Ë than medical truth. Therefore, it is non surprising that more figure of female respondents had scruples on HIV/AIDS and stigmatisation towards PLHAs. Another interesting thing to note was in the manner how people perceived PLHAs. Knowledge on the symptoms of HIV/AIDS patients revealed that many of the respondents considered loss of weight and skin color, organic structure roseola, etc as the major symptoms of HIV/AIDS. This cognition purportedly comes from the cultural belief that most PLHAs in the survey country physically exhibit such symptoms. However, lost of weight and skin color is non medically sole to PLHAs and as such, if non decently sensitized on this, it will take to the incorrect premise that anybody with weight lost or skin color who may non needfully be infected with HIV/AIDS have a strong potency, if non already, to be stereotyped and marginalized as PLHAs Ã¢â¬ . Data besides shows that a monolithic figure of respondents still see HIV/AIDS as immoral disease or diseases of shooting drug users. A big figure of respondents from chandel besides considered HIV/AIDS as penalty of God for Ã¢â¬Ëbad Ã¢â¬Ë behaviour. This belief as analyzed was chiefly influenced by which HIV/AIDS is transmitted i.e. through insecure sex and sharing of septic panpipes. It may be mentioned here that sexual promiscuousness and shooting drug users are culturally viewed in the society as Ã¢â¬Ëfallen Ã¢â¬Ë or Ã¢â¬Ëimmoral Ã¢â¬Ë individual in both the survey country and as such, anybody practising any of the said behaviour are by and large considered immoral and therefore, stigmatized. This could be one of the chief grounds why HIV/AIDS is extremely stigmatized since it is believed to be largely associated with people of low morality or whose moral characters are questionable in the society. Notwithstanding the fact that many guiltless female PLHAs may acquire i nfected through their partner or some could hold been infected through inadvertent blood transfusion, PLHAs are by and large regarded as Ã¢â¬Ëwayward Ã¢â¬Ë in the eyes of the society and as such, are stigmatized. The other grounds stated for HIV/AIDS being considered as the most stigmatized disease is besides because of the nature in which PLHAs, at an advanced phase of the disease, died an ugly decease, physically looking awfully haggard with skeletal like build and complete loss of one Ã¢â¬Ës natural skin color and medically, from multiple timeserving infections. However, the physical perceptual experience may non ever be true for all PLHAs. Another noteworthy observation made in both the society was refering to the prevalence of gender disparity when it comes to morality and promiscuousness. Culturally, sexual promiscuousness and Ã¢â¬Ëimmoral behaviour Ã¢â¬Ë such as drug and intoxicant maltreatment, or waywardness are tabooed yet society tends to be more tolerant towards male members than female. It is an unfastened secret for male members in the society to be accepted more readily than female despite go againsting unsanctioned societal norms. This explains why many of the female respondents expressed that they would experience abashed if infected with HIV/AIDS, a disease symbolic of immoral behaviour. This determination is in conformance with the findings of Smith DJ, 2004. A disagreement between cognition and behavior/practice of the people towards PLHA was besides observed. Though most respondents demuring few were cognizant about the primary manner of HIV/AIDS transmittal, they admitted to hold maintained some distance or reserve in mixing with PLHAs despite cognizing good that making so will in no manner put them at hazards. Gray LA and Marle S, 1991 reported similar observations. This could likely be a instance of utmost cultural stigmatisation of PLHAs in general whereby common people fear the stigma of being stereotyped by tie ining with PLHAs. Respondents besides expressed the feeling that PLHAs should hold separate wellness Centre on the land that it will be safer for both the infected and non-infected population as they could non swear the instruments of wellness attention Centre to be to the full safe from HIV infection. Majority of the respondents besides viewed that PLHAs should neither acquire married nor have kids as making so will merely increased the figure of PLHAs who in all chance will merely populate to endure and died a agonizing decease. However, few people were of the position that every bit long as PLHAs marry amongst themselves, that should non be a job. Since HIV/AIDS is a extremely stigmatized disease ; bulk of the respondents expressed the demand for mandatory HIV proving between twosomes prior to marriage so as to avoid a day of reckoning hereafter as was put in by many respondents. This is because of the belief that HIV/AIDS is a catching and an incurable disease which when infected will invalid and shorten the life span of the individual concern. As one respondent said Ã¢â¬Å" one time you get infected with HIV/AIDS, it is for supports and you can non run off from it instead you Ã¢â¬Ëll decease with and by it Ã¢â¬ . The stigmatisation towards PLHAs is besides revealed in that the general populations tend to hold negatively preconceived impression about anyone infected with HIV/AIDS even if that individual happens to be morally well behaved. Despite holding negative perceptual experiences about HIV/AIDS, when it comes to corporate duty of the people towards PLHAs, bulk of the respondents from both the countries expressed their sense of taking duty to care for PLHAs. However, the cogency of this statement may non defy societal stigma as disagreement between cognition and pattern has been discussed in old statements. One of the grounds for having such duty could be due to the humanist side of adult male underlining other negative feelings. The humane nature is highlighted farther when the respondents said PLHAs should seek medical aid at the earliest with a cautiousness that all patients seeking surgery should be exhaustively tested for HIV/AIDS. Prenuptial or extra-marital sex was non favored by many and more so in Imphal. Respondents in Imphal were somewhat more reserved about sex than those from Chandel. In Imphal country, prenuptial and adulterous sex was seen more as societal tabu while in Chandel it was more to make with the misdemeanor of scriptural moral rule besides it being considered socio-cultural tabu as good. Few respondents largely male, had impersonal position on this, stating it was a affair of personal pick. It may besides be mentioned here that by and large people have reserves about discoursing sex and gender in the unfastened or in public because of the cultural upbringing whereby treatment of sex or gender is confined to or between married twosome. A survey by Goyal RC, et al 1994 ; Hartwig KA et.al, 2006 besides reported similar findings on the reserve of openly discoursing sex and gender. Another interesting characteristic noted in this survey was the induction of sex for both male and female and the age at matrimony. The overall average age for the induction of sex was 23.37AÃ ±5.73 old ages. The overall average age at matrimony observed in the survey was 23.04AÃ ±5.22 and 28.65AÃ ±4.52 old ages for both female and male severally. The average age at matrimony in the survey site was found to be above the legal age at matrimony in India which is 18 for female and 20 one for male. Here, instruction is seen to play an of import function in detaining induction of sex and age at matrimony. A important difference was observed in the age at matrimony among female respondents from Chandel where the induction of matrimony begins every bit early as the age of 14 ( average 20.42AÃ ±4.1 old ages ) . This may be because female respondents largely in-between age in Chandel had small or no instruction at all. Besides instruction, cultural upbringing is besides seen to hold indir ect impact on the age at matrimony. The patriarchal construction of the society in both the survey country is such that male members of the household are given penchants over female in any affairs as it is through male line that coevals of the household is continued. Analysis of sexual behaviour and patterns besides revealed that most of the respondents who do non see themselves at being hazard to HIV infection were in fact, practising hazardous sexual behaviour. Quite a figure of respondents admitted practising insecure sex within and outside matrimony. Though, sexual relation outside matrimony is a socio-cultural tabu, yet it is non purely upheld. Theoretically and culturally, bulk of respondents were non in favour of sexual relation outside of matrimony. However, during the survey, it was found that such cultural apprehension of sexual tabu did non truly forestall some of them from indulging into it as was admitted by few respondents. The sexual behaviors/practices of male respondents were at higher hazard for HIV infection than female respondents. This could be due to the prevalence of gender disparity in the societal set up whereby society is more tolerant towards male promiscuousness and immoral behaviour than that of female. As such, femal e respondents from both the country were more reserved for the obvious fright of shame and incurring stigma. Therefore, none of the female respondents from Imphal admitted to hold indulged in extra-marital matter while in Chandel, a negligible figure of them reluctantly admitted indulging to it after initial equivocation. Male respondents were relatively found to be more blunt and unfastened about their indulgence in sexual relationships in and outside of matrimony. For those respondents who admitted to hold engaged in Ã¢â¬Ëtabooed Ã¢â¬Ë sexual relation, really less figure of them admitted utilizing rubber systematically. Here, it may be noted that despite many of them accepting rubber as a good option for safer sex, it is non being used systematically on the land that rubbers do non give full sexual satisfaction. The ground given to explicate was that culturally ; rubber is stigmatized and is considered meant for sexually promiscuous people. Condoms are besides believed to hold inauspicious consequence on adult females wellness and as such usage of it, in most cases is sooner ruled out. In instance of married twosome, usage of rubber is considered non a necessity as the socio-cultural significance of matrimony is for the intent of reproduction and sexual fulfilment. Therefore, usage of rubber is merely taken as blockading the really intent of matrimony. This is one of the grounds why some respondents who admitted of fall backing to househol d planning preferable preventive pills. A survey carried out in rural Lebanon by Kulczycki A, 2004, reported similar findings on the usage of rubber and the stigma attached to it. It was besides observed that some of the participants had undergone blood transfusion for either medical or surgical grounds, increasing the opportunities of HIV transmittal. Many respondents were willing to accept PLHAs and even take duty for them but this is contradicted by the admittance that they would non needfully desire PLHAs to be neither a resource individual for any socio-religious event nor a spiritual figure in the society because harmonizing to the local people, a spiritual figure should be person whose moral character does non offend the normative moral Torahs of the society whereas in the instance of PLHAs, their moral character is ever questioned and as such can non keep a spiritual place unless the individual in inquiry unfeignedly repents and take a repentant, reform life. Decision: From the analysis of the present survey, it can be concluded that false socio-cultural impression of HIV/AIDS as a morally corrupting disease is taking precedency over medical facts, taking later to stigmatisation and favoritism of PLHAs in the society. The survey revealed that although bulk of the respondents have high cognition about the four primary manner of HIV/AIDS transmittal, such cognition are frequently times marred by socio-cultural misconceptions. It can besides be inferred that behaviour of the people are greatly influenced by cultural beliefs instead than by medical facts. Therefore, incompatibility is observed between high cognition about the four primary paths by which HIV/AIDS is transmitted on one manus and high negative attitude towards PLHAs on the other manus. Local chitchats which are largely diluted with cultural misconceptions act as the fastest medium for the extension of intelligence on HIV/AIDS. Church elders/leaders particularly in chandel have s trong influenced on people Ã¢â¬Ës attitude towards PLHAs. This could be one of the grounds why despite attempts from NGOs to educate people on HIV/AIDS, the disease is fast distributing in the survey country. Therefore, proper sensitisation of the people about HIV/AIDS along the socio-cultural line is the demand of the hr in order to take several misconceptions which are responsible for the marginalisation of PLHAs. It is besides suggested that spiritual leaders should be given particular attending when sing of leaving proper instruction on HIV/AIDS in order that their influence on people may chase away cultural misconceptions taking to stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS. The survey besides may reason that stigmatisation of the disease was one of the root causes for the spread of HIV/AIDS in the country as fright of societal stigma and shame have discouraged many PLHAs to come out in the unfastened about their position thereby jeopardizing others in the procedure as such PLHAs continued to take a normal sexual life.Recognition:This research is financed by UGC under the strategy of Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship for ST/SC pupils to prosecute M.Phil/Ph.DaÃâ Ã ¦aÃâ Ã ¦aÃâ Ã ¦aÃâ Ã ¦aÃ â Ã ¦aÃâ Ã ¦..
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Part Three Wreckage From the national AP ticker, Friday, June 5, 1979: CHAMBERLAIN, MAINE (AP) STATE OFFICIALS SAY THAT THE DEATH TOLL IN CHAMBERLAIN STANDS AT 409, WITH 49 STILL LISTED AS MISSING. INVESTIGATION CONCERNING CARIETTA WHITE AND THE SO-CALLED Ã¢â¬ËTK' PHENOMENA CONTINUES AMID PERSISTENT RUMOURS THAT AN AUTOPSY ON THE WHITE GIRL HAS UNCOVERED CERTAIN UNUSUAL FORMATIONS IN THE CEREBRUM AND CEREBELLUM OF THE BRAIN. THIS STATES GOVERNOR HAS APPOINTED A BLUE-RIBBON COMMITTEE TO STUDY THE ENTIRE TRAGEDY. ENDS. FINAL JUNE 5 030 N AP From The Lewiston Daily Sun, Sunday, September 7 (p. 3): The Legacy of TK Scorched Earth and Scorched Hearts CHAMBERLAIN Ã¢â¬â Prom Night is history now. Pundits have been saying for centuries that time heals all wounds, but the hurt of this small Western Maine town may be mortal. The residential streets are still there on the town's East Side, guarded by graceful Oaks that have stood for two hundred years, the trim saltboxes and ranch styles on Morin Street and Brickyard Hill are still neat and undamaged. But this New England pastoral lies on the rim of a blackened and shattered hub, and many of the neat houses have FOR SALE signs on their front lawns. Those still occupied are marked by black wreaths on front doors. Bright-yellow Allied vans and orange U-Hauls of varying sizes are a common sight on Chamberlain's streets these days. The town's major industry, Chamberlain Mills and Weaving, still stands, untouched by the fire that raged over much of the town on those two days in May. But it has only been running one shift since July 4th, and according to mill president William A. Chamblis, further lay-offs are a strong possibility. Ã¢â¬ËWe have the orders,' Chamblis said, Ã¢â¬Ëbut you can't run a mill without people to punch the time clock. We don't have them. I've gotten notice from thirty-four men since August 15th. The only thing we can see to do now is close up the dye house and job our work out. We'd hate to let the men go, but this thing is getting down to a matter of financial survival.' Roger Fearon has lived in Chamberlain for twenty-two years, and has been with the mill for eighteen of those years. He has risen during that time from a third-floor bagger making seventy-three cents an hour to dye-house foreman; yet he seems strangely unmoved by the possibility of losing his job. Ã¢â¬ËI'd lose a damned good wage,' Fearon said. Ã¢â¬ËIt's not something you take lightly. The wife and I have talked it over. We could sell the house Ã¢â¬â it's worth $20,000 easy Ã¢â¬â and although we probably won't realize half of that, we'll probably go ahead and put it up. Doesn't matter. We don't really want to five in Chamberlain any more. Call it what you want but Chamberlain has gone bad for us.' Fearon is not alone. Henry Kelly, proprietor of a tobacco shop and soda fountain called the Kelly Fruit until Prom Night levelled it, has no plans to rebuild. Ã¢â¬ËThe kids are gone,' he shrugs. Ã¢â¬ËIf I opened up again, there'd be too many ghosts in too many corners. I'm going to take the insurance money and retire to St Petersburg.' A week after the tornado of '54 had cut its path of death and destruction through Worcester, the air was filled with the sound of hammers, the smell of new timber, and a feeling of optimism and human resilience. There is none of that in Chamberlain this fall. The main road has been cleared of rubble and that is about the extent of it. The faces that you meet are full of dull hopelessness. Men drink beer without talking in Frank's Bar on the corner of Sullivan Street, and women exchange tales of grief and loss in back yards. Chamberlain has been declared a disaster area, and money is available to help put the town back on its feet and begin rebuilding the business district. But the main business of Chamberlain in the last four months has been funerals. Four hundred and forty are now known dead, eighteen more still unaccounted for. And sixty-seven of the dead were Ewen High School Seniors on the verge of graduation. It is this, perhaps, more than anything else, that has taken the guts out of Chamberlain. They were buried on June 1 and 2 in three mass ceremonies. A memorial service was held on June 3 in the town square. It was the most moving ceremony that this reporter has ever witnessed. Attendance was in the thousands, and the entire assemblage was still as the school band, stripped from fifty-six to a bare forty, played the school song and taps. There was a sombre graduation ceremony the following week at neighbouring Motton Academy, but there were only fifty-two Seniors left to graduate. The valedictorian, Henry Stampel, broke into tears halfway through his speech and could not continue. There were no Graduation Night parties following the ceremony; the Seniors merely took their diplomas and went home. And still, as the summer progressed, the hearses continued to roll as more bodies were discovered. To some residents it seemed that each day the scab was ripped 69 again, so that the wound could bleed afresh. If you are one of the many curiosity-seekers who have been through Chamberlain in the last week, you have seen a town that may be suffering from terminal cancer of the spirit. A few people, looking lost, wander through the aisles of the A&P. The Congregational Church on Carlin Street is gone, swept away by fire, but the brick Catholic Church still stands on Elm Street, and the trim Methodist Church on outer Main Street although singed by fire, is unhurt. Yet attendance has been poor. The old men still sit on the benches in Courthouse Square, but there is little interest in the checkerboards or even in conversation. The over-all impression is one of a town that is waiting to die. It is not enough, these days, to say that Chamberlain will never be the same. It may be closer to the truth to say that Chamberlain will simply never again be. Excerpt from a letter dated June ninth from principal Henry Grayle to Peter Philpott, Superintendent of Schools. Ã¢â¬ ¦ and so I feel I can no longer continue in my present position, feeling, as I do, that such a tragedy might have been averted if I had only had more foresight. I would like you to accept my resignation effective as of July 1, if this is agreeable to you and your staff. . . Excerpt from a letter dated June eleventh from Rita Desjardin, instructor of Physical Education, to Principal Henry Grayle: Ã¢â¬ ¦ am returning my contract to you at this time. I feet that I would kill myself before ever teaching again. Late at night I keep thinking: If I had only reached out to that girl, if only, if only Ã¢â¬ ¦ Found painted on the lawn of the house tot where the White bungalow had been located: CARRIE WHITE IS BURNING FOR HER SINS JESUS NEVER FAILS From Ã¢â¬ËTelekinesis: Analysis and Aftermath' (Science Yearbook, 1981), by Dean D. L McGuffin: In conclusion, I would like to point out the grave risk authorities are taking by burying the Carrie White affair under the bureaucratic mat-and I am speaking specifically of the so-called White Commission. The desire among politicians to regard TK as a once-in-a-lifetime phenomenon seems very strong, and while this may be understandable it is not acceptable. The possibility of a recurrence, genetically speaking, is 99 per cent. Ifs time we planned now for what may be Ã¢â¬ ¦ From Slang Terms Explained.. A Parents' Guide, by John R. Coombs (New York: The Lighthouse Press, 1985), p. 73: to rip off a Carrie. To cause either violence or destruction; mayhem. confusion; (2) to commit arson (from Carrie White, 1963-1979) From The Shadow Exploded (p. 201): Elsewhere in this book mention is made of a page in one of Carrie White's school notebooks where a line from a famous rock poet of the '60s, Bob Dylan, was written repeatedly, as if in desperation. It might not be amiss to close this book with a few lines from another Bob Dylan song, lines that might serve as Carrie's epitaph: I wish I could write you a melody so plain/ That would save you, dear lady, from going Insane/ That would ease you and cool you and cease the pain/Of your useless and pointless knowledgeÃ¢â¬ ¦ From My Name Is Susan Snell (p. 98): This little book is done now. I hope it sells well so I can go someplace where nobody knows me. I want to think things over, decide what I'm going to do between now and the time when my light is carried down that long tunnel into blackness Ã¢â¬ ¦ From the conclusion of The State Investigatory Board of Maine in connection with the events of May 27-28 in Chamberlain, Maine: Ã¢â¬ ¦ and so we must conclude that, while an autopsy performed on the subject indicates some cellular changes which may indicate the presence of some paranormal power, we find no reason to believe that a recurrence is possible or even likely Ã¢â¬ ¦ Excerpt from a letter dated May 3, 1988, from Amelia Jenks, Royal Knob, Tennessee, to Sandra Jens, Maiken, Georgia: ?Ã and your little neece is growin like a weed, awfull big for only 2. She has blue eyes like her daddy and my blond hair but that will porubly go dark. Still she is awfull pretty & I think sometimes when she is asleep how she looks like our momma. The other day wile she was playin in the dirt beside the house I sneeked around and saw the funnyest thing. Annie was playin with her brothers marbles only they was mooving around all by themselfs. Annie was giggeling and laffing but I was a little skared. Some of them marbles was going right up & down. It reminded me of gramma, do you remember when the law came up that time after Pete and there guns flew out of there hands and grammie just laffed and laffed. And she use to be able to make her rocker go even when she wasen in it. I gave me a reel bad turn to think on it. I shure hope she don't get heartspels like grammie did, remember? Well I must go & do a wash so give my best to Rich and take care to send us some pitchers when you can. Still our Annie is awfull pretty & her eyes are as brite as buttons. I bet she'll be a worldbeeter someday. All my love, Melia
Saturday, September 14, 2019
What is a Cyber Game or Video Games? This is a game in the form of computer software, run on a personal computer or games machine and played by one or more people using a keyboard, mouse, control pad, or joystick. Computer games usually combine sound and graphics and range from traditional games such as chess to fast-moving action games or complex puzzles. Video and computer games, like many popular, entertaining and addicting kid activities, are looked down upon by many parents as time-wasters, and worse, parents think that these games rot the brain. Also, violent video games are readily blamed by the media and some experts as the reason why some youth become violent or commit extreme anti-social behavior. But many scientists and psychologists find that video games actually have many benefits Ã¢â¬â the main one being making kids smart. Video games may actually teach kids high-level thinking skills that they will need in the future. Here are some of the good effects of the Cyber Games. Cyber Games give your childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain a real workout. In many video games, the skills required to win involve abstract and high level thinking. These skills are not even taught at school. Some of the mental skills trained by video games include: Ã¢â¬ ¢Following instruction Ã¢â¬ ¢Problem solving and logic Ã¢â¬ ¢Hand-eye coordination, fine motor and spatial skills Ã¢â¬ ¢Resource management and logistics Ã¢â¬ ¢Multitasking, simultaneous tracking of many shifting variables and managing multiple objectives Ã¢â¬ ¢Quick thinking, making fast analysis and decisions Ã¢â¬ ¢Strategy and anticipation Ã¢â¬ ¢Developing reading and math skills Ã¢â¬ ¢Perseverance Ã¢â¬ ¢Pattern recognition Ã¢â¬ ¢Estimating skills Inductive reasoning and hypothesis testing Ã¢â¬ ¢Memory Ã¢â¬ ¢Reasoned judgments Ã¢â¬ ¢Teamwork and cooperation when played with others. Ã¢â¬ ¢Simulation, real world skill Video games introduce people to computer technology and the online world. You should recognize that we are now living in a high-tech, sophisticated world. Video games make people adapt and be comfortable with the concepts of computing. This is particularly important for girls who typically are not as interested in high technology as much as boys. Video games allow each and everyone to play together and can be a good bonding activity. Some games are attractive to kids as well as adults, and they could be something that they share in common. When a child knows more than you, he can teach you how to play and this allows you to understand a childÃ¢â¬â¢s skills and talents. In the contrast of the good effects, here are the bad effects saying that too much video game playing makes a person socially isolated. Also, he may spend less time in other activities such as doing homework, reading, sports, and interacting with the family and friends. Video games do not exercise a personÃ¢â¬â¢s imaginative thinking. Using imagination may be important in developing creativity. Some video games teach kids the wrong values. Violent behavior, vengeance and aggression are rewarded. Negotiating and other nonviolent solutions are often not options. Women are often portrayed as weaker characters that are helpless or sexually provocative. Games can confuse reality and fantasy. Academic achievement may be negatively related to over-all time spent playing video games. Video games may also have bad effects on some childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health, including obesity, video-induced seizures and postural, muscular and skeletal disorders, such as tendonitis, nerve compression, carpal tunnel syndrome. When playing online, a child can pick up bad language and behavior from other people, and may make the child vulnerable to online dangers. A study by the Minneapolis-based National Institute for Media and the Family suggests that video games can be addictive for kids, and that the kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ addiction to video games increases their depression and anxiety levels. Addicted kids also exhibit social phobias. Not surprisingly, kids addicted to video games see their school performance suffer. I am not saying; stop playing Cyber or Video games because it can harm you and your health rather to limit the amount of time in playing although playing video games can be a learning experience, a variety of entertaining things to learn from, so people will not be addicted to just one thing. Be sure to some read books, play sports, interact with other people, and watch good TV. Everything should be taken in moderation. The Pediatrics recommends that a person should not spend more than one to two hours per day in front of all electronic screens, including TV, DVDs, videos, video games (handheld, console, or computer), and computers (for non-academic use). This means seven to fourteen hours per week total.